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ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OPERATIONS: Adjusting to the Shale Revolution in a Green World

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Referencia: Código 8156


DESCRIPCIÓN:

Junio de 2019  -  James A. Jacobs; Stephen M. Testa  -  Refª 8156

CONTENIDO:

James A. Jacobs; Stephen M. Testa

Junio de 2019       Páginas: 576      Cartoné

Código 8156        ISBN/EAN: 9781119336099

Description

A guide to environmental and communication issues related to fracking and the best approach to protect communities 

Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations offers a much-needed resource that explores the complex challenges of fracking by providing an understanding of the environmental and communication issues that are inherent with hydraulic fracturing. The book balances the current scientific knowledge with the uncertainty and risks associated with hydraulic fracking. In addition, the authors offer targeted approaches for helping to keep communities safe.

The authors include an overview of the historical development of hydraulic fracturing and the technology currently employed. The book also explores the risk, prevention, and mitigation factors that are associated with fracturing. The authors also include legal cases, regulatory issues, and data on the cost of recovery. The volume presents audit checklists for gathering critical information and documentation to support the reliability of the current environmental conditions related to fracking operations and the impact fracking can have on a community. This vital resource:

  • Contains the technical information and mitigation recommendations for safety and environmental issues related to hydraulic fracturing
  • Offers an historical overview of conventional and unconventional oil and gas drilling
  • Explains the geologic and technical issues associated with fracking of tight sand and shale formulations
  • Presents numerous case studies from the United States EPA and other agencies
  • Discusses issues of co-produced waste water and induced seismicity from the injection of wastewater

Written for environmental scientists, geologists, engineers, regulators, city planners, attorneys, foresters, wildlife biologists, and others, Environmental Considerations Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations offers a comprehensive resource to the complex environmental and communication issues related to fracking.

List of Figures xvii

List of Tables xxvii

Foreword xxxi

Acknowledgments xxxiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Energy and the Shale Revolution 1

1.2 Cultural Influences 3

1.3 Conventional Versus Unconventional Resources 4

1.4 Well Simulation 5

1.5 Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States 16

1.6 Environmental Considerations 17

1.7 Exercises 22

References 22

Suggested Reading 23

2 Historical Development from Fracturing to Hydraulic Fracturing 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Explosives and Guns (1820s–1930s) 26

2.3 The Birth of the Petroleum Engineer (1940s–1950s) 38

2.4 Going Nuclear During Peak Oil (1960s to Mid‐1970s) 39

2.5 The Rise of the Unconventionals (Mid‐1970s to Present) 45

2.6 Exercises 49

References 50

Suggested Reading 51

3 Geology of Unconventional Resources 53

3.1 Introduction 53

3.2 Oil Shale Nomenclature 54

3.3 Oil Shale Classification 54

3.4 Types of Shale Formations Based on Production 56

3.5 Geology of United States Shale Deposits 60

3.6 The Role of Natural Fractures 75

3.7 Exercises 76

References 77

Suggested Reading 79

4 Overview of Drilling and Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation Techniques for Tight Oil and Gas Shale Formations 81

4.1 Introduction 81

4.2 Phase 1: Prospect Generation for Unconventional Oil and Gas Targets 85

4.3 Phase 2: Planning Phase 92

4.4 Phase 3: Drilling 94

4.5 Brief Overview of Hydraulic Fracturing 109

4.6 Operators and Contractors 111

4.7 Phase 4: Completion 111

4.8 Overview of Hydraulic Fracturing Process 115

4.9 Single‐Stage Treatment 119

4.10 Fluid Recovery and Waste Management 123

4.11 Oil and Gas Production 123

4.12 Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) 126

4.13 Workshop #1: Gas Well Economic Limit 128

4.14 Workshop #2: Oil Well Economics 129

4.15 Well Destruction 129

4.16 Summary 131

4.17 Exercises 131

References 132

Suggested Reading 134

5 Overview of Impacts from Tight Oil and Shale Gas Resource Development 137

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Potential Impacts and Risks of Spills 137

5.3 Significance of Impacts 137

5.4 Overview of the Five Main Resource Categories 138

5.5 Primary Wastes Generated 146

5.6 Site‐specific Impact Analysis 146

5.7 Summary of Resources and Issues 163

5.8 Summary 174

5.9 Exercises 176

References 177

Suggested Reading 179

6 Surface and Groundwater Risks, Resource Quality Management, and Impacts 183

6.1 Introduction 183

6.2 The Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle 183

6.3 Potential Impacts on Drinking Water Resources 188

6.4 Public Water System (PWS) Sources 189

6.5 Underground Injection Control 190

6.6 Case Histories 196

6.7 Exercises 198

References 198

Suggested Reading 199

7 Induced Seismicity 203

7.1 Introduction 203

7.2 Measuring Earthquake Severity 204

7.3 Anthropogenic‐Induced Earthquakes 208

7.4 Mechanics of Anthropogenic‐Induced Earthquakes 210

7.5 Induced Microseismicity and Microseismic Monitoring 212

7.6 Exercises 212

References 213

Suggested Reading 213

8 Air Quality Resources and Mitigation Measures 215

8.1 Introduction 215

8.2 Unconventional Resource Extraction and Air Quality 215

8.3 Sources of Air Emissions 215

8.4 Worker Safety 220

8.5 Gas Leaks and Vapor Sampling 230

8.6 Biogenic and Thermogenic Hydrocarbon Gases 232

8.7 Gas Leaks 233

8.8 Soil Vapor Intrusion Overview 234

8.9 General Approach to Evaluating Soil Vapor Intrusion 237

8.10 Summary 248

8.11 Exercises 249

References 249

Suggested Reading 253

9 Land Use Resources and Socioeconomics 255

9.1 Introduction 255

9.2 Community Concerns and Land Use Planning 255

9.3 Environmental Justice 259

9.4 Land Disturbance 259

9.5 Light Pollution 261

9.6 Noise 263

9.7 Odor 270

9.8 Socioeconomics 271

9.9 Transportation and Traffic 272

9.10 Visual Aesthetics 277

9.11 Worker Safety 278

9.12 Cumulative Impacts 278

9.13 Exercises 279

References 279

Suggested Reading 281

10 Ecological Resources 283

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Ecosystem Resources 283

10.3 Ecosystem Resources 283

10.4 Interim Reclamation 286

10.5 Summary 295

10.6 Exercises 295

References 296

Suggested Reading 297

11 Legislative Trends Associated with Well Stimulation and Hydraulic Fracturing 299

11.1 Introduction 299

11.2 Federal Laws and Regulations 300

11.3 State Legislation and Regulations 304

11.4 Bans and Moratoriums 311

11.5 Exercises 313

References 313

Suggested Reading 314

12 Sampling, Exposure Pathways, and Site Conceptual Models 315

12.1 Introduction 315

12.2 Hypothetical Scenario 317

12.3 Overview of Sampling Procedures 322

12.4 Soil and Water Sampling 327

12.5 Field Screening and Analysis 329

12.6 Other Considerations 332

12.7 Fate and Transport 339

12.8 Summary 342

12.9 Exercises 342

References 345

Suggested Reading 347

13 Financial Issues: Real Estate Values and Selected Contracting Costs of Repairs, Assessment, or Mitigation Activities for Unconventional Oil and Gas Production Areas 351

13.1 Introduction 351

13.2 Valuation of Real Estate 351

13.3 Water Supplies 357

13.4 Other Mitigating Costs 358

13.5 Mitigation of Subsurface Impacts 362

13.6 Remediation Strategies 365

13.7 Budgeting for Costs 369

13.8 Summary 372

13.9 Exercises 373

References 374

Suggested Reading 375

14 Legal Considerations and Case Law 377

14.1 Introduction 377

14.2 Environmental Tort Litigation 382

14.3 Environmental/Citizen Action and Industry Challenges Litigation 383

14.4 Infrastructure‐Related Litigation 384

14.5 Traditional Oil and Gas Issues in Nontraditional Forums 384

14.6 Fracking Bans and Moratoriums 384

14.7 Summary 386

14.8 Exercises 387

Reference 387

Suggested Reading 387

15 Spills, Forensic Evaluation, and Case Studies 389

15.1 Introduction 389

15.2 Spill Studies 389

15.3 Spill Settlement Case Study 392

15.3.1 Rail Case Studies 393

15.3.2 Bakken Crude Oil Characteristics: Two Studies 394

15.3.3 Summary of Bakken Crude Oil Spill Incidents 394

15.3.4 Fate and Transport of Spilled Crude 394

15.3.5 Combustion 398

15.3.6 DOT‐117 Tank Car Design 398

15.4 Violations 399

15.5 Forensic Analysis 399

15.5.1 Gas Chromatograms 400

15.5.2 Tentatively Identified Compounds (TICs) 401

15.5.3 Piper Diagrams 401

15.5.4 Biomarkers 403

15.5.5 Chemical and Biological Transformations 404

15.5.6 Chemical Ratios 406

15.5.7 Geochemical Tracers 406

15.5.8 Isotopes 407

15.5.9 Forensic Isotope Analysis 408

15.5.10 Boron and Strontium Isotope Ratios 409

15.5.11 Radioactive Isotopes 410

15.5.12 Case Studies 411

15.6 Prospective and Retrospective Case Studies 413

15.6.1 US EPA Retrospective Case Study 414

15.6.2 US EPA Retrospective Study Approach and Sampling Activities 415

15.6.3 Main Findings 420

15.6.4 Summary of US EPA Retrospective Studies 438

15.7 Exercises 439

References 440

Suggested Reading 446

16 Conclusions 453

Appendix A Selected University Studies, State, and Federal Reports 455

Appendix B Glossary 461

Appendix C List of Acronyms and Abbreviations 467

Appendix D Conversions 473

Appendix E Summary of Potential Job Hazards During Hydraulic Fracture Stimulation Process 477

Appendix F Chemical Additives Used in the High‐Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Operations 481

Appendix G Exposure Planning, Emergency Response, and Toxicity Tables 485

Appendix H Selected Sampling Methods and Documentation 493

Appendix I Environmental Checklists 503

Appendix J Metric Conversion of Table 3.4 (Metric Units in Bold italics) 523

Appendix K US Crude Oil Prices 1859–2016 525

Index 527

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