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PRINCIPLES OF TURBOMACHINERY. 2nd Edition

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Referencia: Código 8245


DESCRIPCIÓN:

Septiembre de 2019 -  Seppo A. Korpela  -  Refª 8245

CONTENIDO:

Seppo A. Korpela

Septiembre de 2019     Páginas: 592

Código 8245     ISBN/EAN: 9781119518082

Description

A newly updated and expanded edition that combines theory and applications of turbomachinery while covering several different types of turbomachinery 

In mechanical engineering, turbomachinery describes machines that transfer energy between a rotor and a fluid, including turbines, compressors, and pumps. Aiming for a unified treatment of the subject matter, with consistent notation and concepts, this new edition of a highly popular book provides all new information on turbomachinery, and includes 50% more exercises than the previous edition. It allows readers to easily move from a study of the most successful textbooks on thermodynamics and fluid dynamics to the subject of turbomachinery. The book also builds concepts systematically as progress is made through each chapter so that the user can progress at their own pace.

Principles of Turbomachinery, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of everything readers need to know, including chapters on: thermodynamics, compressible flow, and principles of turbomachinery analysis. The book also looks at steam turbines, axial turbines, axial compressors, centrifugal compressors and pumps, radial inflow turbines, hydraulic turbines, hydraulic transmission of power, and wind turbines. New chapters on droplet laden flows of steam and oblique shocks help make this an incredibly current and well-rounded resource for students and practicing engineers.

  • Includes 50% more exercises than the previous edition
  • Uses MATLAB or GNU/OCTAVE for all the examples and exercises for which computer calculations are needed, including those for steam
  • Allows for a smooth transition from the study of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer to the subject of turbomachinery for students and professionals
  • Organizes content so that more difficult material is left to the later sections of each chapter, allowing instructors to customize and tailor their courses for their students

Principles of Turbomachinery is an excellent book for students and professionals in mechanical, chemical, and aeronautical engineering.

Foreword xv

Acknowledgments xvii

About the Companion Website xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Energy and Fluid Machines 1

1.1.1 Energy conversion of fossil fuels 1

1.1.2 Steam turbines 2

1.1.3 Gas turbines 3

1.1.4 Hydraulic turbines 4

1.1.5 Wind turbines 5

1.1.6 Compressors 5

1.1.7 Pumps and blowers 5

1.1.8 Other uses and issues 6

1.2 Historical Survey 7

1.2.1 Water power 7

1.2.2 Wind turbines 8

1.2.3 Steam turbines 9

1.2.4 Jet propulsion 10

1.2.5 Industrial turbines 11

1.2.6 Pumps and compressors 11

1.2.7 Note on units 12

2 Principles of Thermodynamics and Fluid Flow 15

2.1 Mass Conservation Principle 15

2.2 First Law of Thermodynamics 17

2.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics 19

2.3.1 Tds-equations 19

2.4 Equations of State 20

2.4.1 Properties of steam 21

2.4.2 Ideal gases 27

2.4.3 Air tables and isentropic relations 29

2.4.4 Ideal gas mixtures 32

2.4.5 Incompressibility 36

2.4.6 Stagnation state 37

2.5 Efficiency 37

2.5.1 Efficiency measures 37

2.5.2 Thermodynamic losses 43

2.5.3 Incompressible fluid 45

2.5.4 Compressible flows 46

2.6 Momentum Balance 48

Exercises 56

3 Compressible Flow 63

3.1 Mach Number and The Speed of Sound 63

3.1.1 Mach number relations 65

3.2 Isentropic Flow with Area Change 67

3.2.1 Converging nozzle 71

3.3 Influence of Friction on Flow Through Nozzles 73

3.3.1 Polytropic efficiency 73

3.3.2 Loss coefficients 77

3.3.3 Nozzle efficiency 81

3.3.4 Combined Fanno flow and area change 82

3.4 Supersonic Nozzle 87

3.5 Normal Shocks 90

3.5.1 Rankine–Hugoniot relations 95

3.6 Moving Shocks 98

3.7 Oblique Shocks and Expansion Fans 100

3.7.1 Mach waves 100

3.7.2 Oblique shocks 101

3.7.3 Supersonic flow over a rounded concave corner 107

3.7.4 Reflected shocks and shock interactions 108

3.7.5 Mach reflection 110

3.7.6 Detached oblique shocks 110

3.7.7 Prandtl–Meyer theory 112

Exercises 124

4 Gas Dynamics of Wet Steam 131

4.1 Compressible Flow of Wet Steam 132

4.1.1 Clausius–Clapeyron equation 132

4.1.2 Adiabatic exponent 133

4.2 Conservation Equations for Wet Steam 137

4.2.1 Relaxation times 139

4.2.2 Conservation equations in their working form 144

4.2.3 Sound speeds 146

4.3 Relaxation Zones 149

4.3.1 Type I wave 149

4.3.2 Type II wave 154

4.3.3 Type III wave 157

4.3.4 Combined relaxation 157

4.3.5 Flow in a variable area nozzle 159

4.4 Shocks in Wet Steam 161

4.4.1 Evaporation in the flow after the shock 164

4.5 Condensation Shocks 167

4.5.1 Jump conditions across a condensation shock 169

Exercises 174

5 Principles of Turbomachine Analysis 177

5.1 Velocity Triangles 178

5.2 Moment of Momentum Balance 181

5.3 Energy Transfer in Turbomachines 182

5.3.1 Trothalpy and specific work in terms of velocities 186

5.3.2 Degree of reaction 189

5.4 Utilization 191

5.5 Scaling and Similitude 198

5.5.1 Similitude 198

5.5.2 Incompressible flow 199

5.5.3 Shape parameter or specific speed and specific diameter 202

5.5.4 Compressible flow analysis 206

5.6 Performance Characteristics 208

5.6.1 Compressor performance map 208

5.6.2 Turbine performance map 209

Exercises 210

6 Steam Turbines 215

6.1 Introduction 215

6.2 Impulse Turbines 217

6.2.1 Single-stage impulse turbine 217

6.2.2 Pressure compounding 226

6.2.3 Blade shapes 230

6.2.4 Velocity compounding 233

6.3 Stage with Zero Reaction 238

6.4 Loss Coefficients 241

Exercises 243

7 Axial Turbines 247

7.1 Introduction 247

7.2 Turbine Stage Analysis 249

7.3 Flow and Loading Coefficients and Reaction Ratio 253

7.3.1 Fifty percent (50%) stage 258

7.3.2 Zero percent (0%) reaction stage 262

7.3.3 Off-design operation 263

7.3.4 Variable axial velocity 265

7.4 Three-Dimensional Flow and Radial Equilibrium 267

7.4.1 Free vortex flow 269

7.4.2 Fixed blade angle 273

7.4.3 Constant mass flux 273

7.5 Turbine Efficiency and Losses 276

7.5.1 Soderberg loss coefficients 276

7.5.2 Stage efficiency 277

7.5.3 Stagnation pressure losses 279

7.5.4 Performance charts 285

7.5.5 Zweifel correlation 290

7.5.6 Further discussion of losses 291

7.5.7 Ainley–Mathieson correlation 293

7.5.8 Secondary loss 296

7.6 Multistage Turbine 302

7.6.1 Reheat factor in a multistage turbine 302

7.6.2 Polytropic or small-stage efficiency 304

Exercises 305

8 Axial Compressors 311

8.1 Compressor Stage Analysis 312

8.1.1 Stage temperature and pressure rise 313

8.1.2 Analysis of a repeating stage 315

8.2 Design Deflection 321

8.2.1 Compressor performance map 324

8.3 Radial Equilibrium 326

8.3.1 Modified free vortex velocity distribution 327

8.3.2 Velocity distribution with zero-power exponent 330

8.3.3 Velocity distribution with first-power exponent 331

8.4 Diffusion Factor 333

8.4.1 Momentum thickness of a boundary layer 335

8.5 Efficiency and Losses 339

8.5.1 Efficiency 339

8.5.2 Parametric calculations 342

8.6 Cascade Aerodynamics 343

8.6.1 Blade shapes and terms 344

8.6.2 Blade forces 345

8.6.3 Other losses 347

8.6.4 Diffuser performance 348

8.6.5 Flow deviation and incidence 349

8.6.6 Multi-stage compressor 351

8.6.7 Compressibility effects 352

8.6.8 Design of a compressor 353

Exercises 359

9 Centrifugal Compressors and Pumps 363

9.1 Compressor Analysis 364

9.1.1 Slip factor 365

9.1.2 Pressure ratio 367

9.2 Inlet Design 374

9.2.1 Choking of the inducer 379

9.3 Exit Design 381

9.3.1 Performance characteristics 381

9.3.2 Diffusion ratio 384

9.3.3 Blade height 385

9.4 Vaneless Diffuser 387

9.5 Centrifugal Pumps 391

9.5.1 Specific speed and specific diameter 395

9.6 Fans 403

9.7 Cavitation 404

9.8 Diffuser and Volute Design 406

9.8.1 Vaneless diffuser 406

9.8.2 Volute design 407

Exercises 411

10 Radial Inflow Turbines 415

10.1 Turbine Analysis 416

10.2 Efficiency 421

10.3 Specific Speed and Specific Diameter 425

10.4 Stator Flow 431

10.4.1 Loss coefficients for stator flow 436

10.5 Design of the Inlet of a Radial Inflow Turbine 440

10.5.1 Minimum inlet Mach number 441

10.5.2 Blade stagnation Mach number 447

10.5.3 Inlet relative Mach number 449

10.6 Design of the Exit 450

10.6.1 Minimum exit Mach number 450

10.6.2 Radius ratio r3s/r2 453

10.6.3 Blade height-to-radius ratio b2/r2 454

10.6.4 Optimum incidence angle and the number of blades 455

Exercises 460

11 Hydraulic Turbines 463

11.1 Hydroelectric Power Plants 463

11.2 Hydraulic Turbines and their Specific Speed 465

11.3 Pelton Wheel 467

11.4 Francis Turbine 475

11.5 Kaplan Turbine 483

11.6 Cavitation 486

Exercises 488

12 Hydraulic Transmission of Power 491

12.1 Fluid Couplings 491

12.1.1 Fundamental relations 492

12.1.2 Flow rate and hydrodynamic losses 494

12.1.3 Partially filled coupling 496

12.2 Torque Converters 497

12.2.1 Fundamental relations 497

12.2.2 Performance 500

Exercises 504

13 Wind Turbines 507

13.1 Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine 508

13.2 Momentum Theory of Wind Turbines 509

13.2.1 Axial momentum 509

13.2.2 Ducted wind turbine 514

13.2.3 Wake rotation 516

13.2.4 Irrotational wake 518

13.3 Blade Element Theory 522

13.3.1 Nonrotating wake 522

13.3.2 Wake with rotation 525

13.3.3 Ideal wind turbine 530

13.3.4 Prandtl’s tip correction 532

13.4 Turbomachinery and Future Prospects for Energy 535

Exercises 536

Appendix A: Streamline Curvature and Radial Equilibrium 539

A.1 Streamline Curvature Method 539

A.1.1 Fundamental equations 539

A.1.2 Formal solution 543

Appendix B: Thermodynamic Tables 545

References 559

Index 565

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